Les Identity Tech Talks arrivent à Paris

Depuis plus d’un an, il y a des réunions mensuelles à Londres pour discuter des technologies autour de l’Identité Numérique, de la gestion des identités et des accès, de la gouvernance, de la sécurité…

Les Identity Tech Talks arrivent à Paris, le 1er Décembre puis tous les mois. identitytechtalks-fr

Pour la première, “Oubliez votre mot de passe !” et “Comment ca marche : OpenID Connect, fournisseur d’identité universel de Google à FranceConnect” sont les sujets présentés.

Rendez vous à La Source @ Le Tank (RDC), 22 bis rue des Taillandiers, Paris 8.

Pour vous inscrire, c’est sur Meetup.

En espérant vous y voir le 1er Décembre, à 18h15.

 

DDOS Attacks leveraging LDAP !

21382575392_223304551e_z
photo by Christiaan Colen

Yesterday, DDoS mitigation provider Corero Network Security disclosed a zero-day distributed denial of service attack (DDoS) technique, observed in the wild, that is capable of amplifying malicious traffic by a factor of as much as 55x. Several sites published the story as “Attackers are now abusing exposed LDAP servers to amplify DDoS attacks”.

 

According to Corero, the attacks exploited the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), but reading the details of the press release, it appears that the attackers were using Connectionless LDAP services (CLDAP) .

In this case, the attacker sends a simple query to a vulnerable reflector supporting the Connectionless LDAP service (CLDAP) and using address spoofing makes it appear to originate from the intended victim. The CLDAP service responds to the spoofed address, sending unwanted network traffic to the attacker’s intended target.

Connectionless LDAP  is a very old technical specification, published in 1995 as RFC 1798.  In 2003, this specification was obsoleted by RFC 3352 and moved to historical status. One of the main reason for obsoleting the proposed standard was its insufficient security capabilities.

OpenDJ, the open source LDAP Directory Services in Java, has never supported CLDAP and thus cannot be used in such attack. So, if you are a  ForgeRock customer, you should not worry about this kind of attack. But if you’re running a legacy product, that has CLDAP enabled by default, it is probably time to think about moving to a more recent and up to date directory service, such as OpenDJ.

 

Managing OpenDJ with REST

OpenDJ, the open source LDAP Directory Server, was the first to propose a native HTTP REST / JSON access to the data.

In the next major release, OpenDJ will be providing many enhancements to the REST interface, that I will describe in a series of posts. To start with, let’s talk about the new administrative interfaces added to manage the OpenDJ server.

When the HTTP access is enabled, OpenDJ creates by default 2 administrative endpoints: /admin/config and /admin/monitor.

/admin/config provides a read-write access to the configuration, with the same view and hierarchy of objects as the LDAP access. All of the operations that are possible with the dsconfig command, can be done over LDAP, and now REST.  As a matter of fact, the /admin/config API is automatically generated from the same XML description files that are used to generate the LDAP view and the dsconfig command line utilities. This means that any extension, plugin added to the server will also be exposed via REST without additional code.

screen-shot-2016-10-25-at-15-03-54

Above is an example of query of the /admin/config endpoint, querying for all  backends , done as a user who has the privilege to read the configuration. A similar query done with a user that doesn’t have the config-read privilege does fail as below:

$ curl -s -u user.2 http://localhost:8080/admin/config/backends/userRoot
Enter host password for user 'user.2': 
{
 "message" : "Insufficient Access Rights: You do not
have sufficient privileges to perform search operations
in the Directory Server configuration",
 "code" : 403,
 "reason" : "Forbidden"
}

/admin/monitor provides a read-only view on all of the OpenDJ monitoring information that was already accessible via LDAP under the "cn=Monitor" naming context, and JMX.

$ curl -s -u user.0 http://localhost:8080/admin/monitor/
Enter host password for user 'user.0':
{
 "_id" : "monitor",
 "upTime" : "0 days 2 hours 49 minutes 54 seconds",
 "currentConnections" : "1",
 "totalConnections" : "32",
 "currentTime" : "20161024103215Z",
 "startTime" : "20161024074220Z",
 "productName" : "OpenDJ Server",
 "_rev" : "00000000644a67b2",
 "maxConnections" : "3"
}

The /admin REST endpoints can be protected with different authorization mechanisms, from HTTP basic to OAuth2. And the whole endpoint can be disabled as well if needed using dsconfig.

These administrative REST endpoints can be tested with the OpenDJ nightly builds. They are also available to ForgeRock customers as part of our latest update of the ForgeRock Identity Platform.

Paris Identity Summit, 15 Novembre 2016

paris_summitL’édition Française de l’Identity Summit aura lieu le Mardi 15 Novembre à Paris, au Cercle National des Armées.

L’Identity Summit, c’est l’événement qui permet de comprendre comment l’identité numérique est au coeur de la sécurité, de la transformation numérique et de la révolution des objets connectés. C’est aussi l’occasion d’entendre des retours d’expérience de la solution ForgeRock Identity Platform, de rencontrer d’autres clients et de partager vos besoins ou expérience,  de discuter avec les partenaires qui déroulent les implémentations, d’avoir un aperçu des évolutions à venir de la solution de ForgeRock…

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Pour vous inscrire, c’est ici : https://summits.forgerock.com/paris/ et profitez de 50% de réduction avec le code  Summit50.

J’espère vous y rencontrer !

More about OpenDJ support for JSON attribute values

In a previous post, I introduced the new JSON syntax, JSON query and matching rules that are delivered as part of the OpenDJ LDAP directory server. Today, I will give more insights on how to customise the syntax, tune the matching rules for smarter and more efficient indexing, and I will highlight some best practices with using the JSON syntax.

JSON Syntax Validation

When defining an attribute with a JSON syntax, the server will validate that the JSON value is compliant with JSON RFC.  OpenDJ offers a few options to relax some of the constraints of a valid JSON. To change the settings of the syntax, you must use dsconfig --advanced.

>>>> Configure the properties of the Core Schema

Property Value(s)
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1) allow-attribute-types-with-no-sup-or-syntax true
 2) allow-zero-length-values-directory-string false
 3) disabled-matching-rule NONE
 4) disabled-syntax NONE
 5) enabled true
 6) java-class org.opends.server.schema.CoreSchemaProvider
 7) json-validation-policy strict
 8) strict-format-certificates true
 9) strict-format-country-string true
 10) strict-format-jpeg-photos false
 11) strict-format-telephone-numbers false
 12) strip-syntax-min-upper-bound-attribute-type-description false

?) help
 f) finish - apply any changes to the Core Schema
 c) cancel
 q) quit

Enter choice [f]: 7


>>>> Configuring the "json-validation-policy" property

Specifies the policy that will be used when validating JSON syntax values.

Do you want to modify the "json-validation-policy" property?

1) Keep the default value: strict
 2) Change it to the value: disabled
 3) Change it to the value: lenient

?) help
 q) quit

Enter choice [1]:

Strict is the default mode.

Disabled means that the server will not try to validate the content of a JSON value.

Lenient means that it will validate the JSON value, but tolerate comments, single quotes and unquoted control characters.

JSON Matching Rule and Indexing

Like any attribute in the OpenDJ server, attributes with a JSON syntax can be indexed.

$ dsconfig -h localhost -p 4444 \
  -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w secret12 -X -n \
 set-backend-index-prop \--backend-name userRoot \
 --index-name json --set index-type:equality

By default, the server actually indexes each field of all JSON values. If the values are large and complex, indexing will  result in many disk I/O, possibly impacting performances for write operations.

If you know which fields of the JSON values will be queried for by the client applications, you can optimise the index and specify the JSON fields that are indexed. This is by creating a new custom schema provider for the JSON query. You can choose to overwrite the default JSON query matching rules (as illustrated below), and this will affect all JSON attributes, or you can choose to create a new rule (with a new name and OID).

In the example below, the custom schema provider overwrites the default caseIgnoreJsonQueryMatch, and only indexes the JSON fields _id and name with its subfields.

$ dsconfig -h localhost -p 4444 \
  -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w secret12 -X -n \
 create-schema-provider --provider-name "Json Schema" \
 --type json-schema --set enabled:true \
 --set case-sensitive-strings:false \
 --set ignore-white-space:true \
 --set matching-rule-name:caseIgnoreJsonQueryMatch \
 --set matching-rule-oid:1.3.6.1.4.1.36733.2.1.4.1 \
 --set indexed-field:_id \
 --set "indexed-field:name/**" 

When you overwrite the default matching rule, or you define a new one, you need to rebuild the indexes for all attributes that are making use of it.

Best Practices

The support for JSON attributes in OpenDJ is very new, but yet, we can recommend how to best use them.

The first thing, is to use the JSON syntax for attributes that are single valued. Indexing is designed to associate values with entries. Because JSON query indexes are built for all fields of the JSON objects, an entry will be returned if a query matches all fields, even though they are in different objects.

The JSON syntax is handy to store complex JSON objects in a single attribute and query them, through any field. However, the larger the values, the  more impact on the directory server’s performances. As, by default, all JSON fields are indexed, the more fields, the more expensive will be indexing. Also, because the JSON objects are LDAP attributes, the only way to change a value is to replace the value with a new one (or delete the value and add a new one, which are operations with even more bytes). There is no patch operation on the value. Finally, OpenDJ stores all attributes of an entry in a single database record. So any change in the entry itself will require to write the whole entry again.

As we’ve seen above, OpenDJ proposes a way to customise the JSON queries and the JSON fields that are indexed. We suggest that you make use of this capability and optimise the indexing of JSON objects for the queries run by the client applications.

If you plan to store different kinds of JSON objects in an OpenDJ directory service, define different attributes with the JSON syntax, and use a custom JSON query per attribute. For example, lets assume you will have entries that are persons with an address attribute with a JSON syntax, and some other entries that represent OAuth2 tokens, and the token main attribute has a JSON syntax. You should define an address attribute and a token attribute, both with the JSON syntax, but their specific matching rules, like below.

attributeTypes: ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.36733.2.1.1.999 NAME 'address'
  SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.36733.2.1.3.1
  EQUALITY caseIgnoreJsonAddressQueryMatch SINGLE-VALUE )

attributeTypes: ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.36733.2.1.1.999 NAME 'token'
  SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.36733.2.1.3.1 
  EQUALITY caseIgnoreJsonTokenQueryMatch SINGLE-VALUE )

where the matching rules are defined as such:

$ dsconfig -h localhost -p 4444 \
  -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w secret12 -X -n \
 create-schema-provider \
 --provider-name "Address Json Schema" \
 --type json-schema --set enabled:true \
 --set case-sensitive-strings:false \
 --set ignore-white-space:true \
 --set matching-rule-name:caseIgnoreJsonAddressQueryMatch \
 --set matching-rule-oid:1.3.6.1.4.1.36733.2.1.4.998

and

$ dsconfig -h localhost -p 4444 \
  -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w secret12 -X -n \
 create-schema-provider \
 --provider-name "Token Json Schema" \
 --type json-schema --set enabled:true \
 --set case-sensitive-strings:false \
 --set ignore-white-space:true \
 --set matching-rule-name:caseIgnoreJsonTokenQueryMatch \
 --set matching-rule-oid:1.3.6.1.4.1.36733.2.1.4.999 \
 --set indexed-field:token_type \
 --set indexed-field:expires_at \
 --set indexed-field:access_token

Note that there is an issue with OpenDJ 4.0.0-SNAPSHOTS (nightly builds) and when you define a new Schema Provider, you need to restart the server to have it be effective.

London Identity Summit 2016

Yesterday, ForgeRock hosted the London Identity Summit, 2016 Series.

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Mike Ellis, ForgeRock CEO, launching the London Identity Summit.

Attended by more than 300 customers, prospects, partners, the event was a great success. For a short summary of the event, check ForgeRock blog. Highlights, presentations, etc will all be available shortly at https://summits.forgerock.com/london/. Meanwhile all my photos of the event are available here, and you can get a feel of the pulse of the event through the twitter stream (hashtag #IdentitySummit)

The next Identity Summit will be held in Paris on November 15th. I hope to see you there.

 

Storing JSON objects in LDAP attributes…

jsonUntil recently, the only way to store a JSON object to an LDAP directory server, was to store it as string (either a Directory String i.e a sequence of UTF-8 characters, or an Octet String i.e. a blob of octets).

But now, in OpenDJ, the Open source LDAP Directory services in Java, there is now support for new syntaxes : one for JSON objects and one for JSON Query. Associated with the JSON query, a couple of matching rules, that can be easily customised and extended, have been defined.

To use the syntax and matching rules, you should first extend the LDAP schema with one or more new attributes, and use these attributes in object classes. For example :

dn: cn=schema
objectClass: top
objectClass: ldapSubentry
objectClass: subschema
attributeTypes: ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.36733.2.1.1.999 NAME 'json'
SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.36733.2.1.3.1 EQUALITY caseIgnoreJsonQueryMatch SINGLE-VALUE )
objectClasses: (1.3.6.1.4.1.36733.2.1.2.999 NAME 'jsonObject'
SUP top MUST (cn $ json ) )

Just copy the LDIF above into config/schema/95-json.ldif, and restart the OpenDJ server. Make sure you use your own OIDs when defining schema elements. The ones above are samples and should not be used in production.

Then, you can add entries in the OpenDJ directory server like this:

$ ldapmodify -a -D cn=directory\ manager -w secret12 -h localhost -p 1389

dn: cn=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: jsonObject
cn: bjensen
json: { "_id":"bjensen", "_rev":"123", "name": { "first": "Babs", "surname": "Jensen" }, "age": 25, "roles": [ "sales", "admin" ] }

dn: cn=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: jsonObject
cn: scarter
json: { "_id":"scarter", "_rev":"456", "name": { "first": "Sam", "surname": "Carter" }, "age": 48, "roles": [ "manager", "eng" ] }

The very nice thing about the JSON syntax and matching rules, is that OpenDJ understands how the values of the json attribute are structured, and it becomes possible to make specific queries, using the JSON Query syntax.

Let’s search for all jsonObjects that have a json value with a specific _id :

$ ldapsearch -D cn=directory\ manager -w secret12 -h localhost -p 1389 -b "dc=example,dc=com" -s sub "(json=_id eq 'scarter')"

dn: cn=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: jsonObject
json: { "_id":"scarter", "_rev":"456", "name": { "first": "Sam", "surname": "Carter" }, "age": 48, "roles": [ "manager", "eng" ] }
cn: scarter

We can run more complex queries, still using the JSON Query Syntax:

$ ldapsearch -D cn=directory\ manager -w secret12 -h localhost -p 1389 -b "dc=example,dc=com" -s sub "(json=name/first sw 'b' and age lt 30)"

dn: cn=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: jsonObject
json: { "_id":"bjensen", "_rev":"123", "name": { "first": "Babs", "surname": "Jensen" }, "age": 25, "roles": [ "sales", "admin" ] }
cn: bjensen

For a complete description of the query  filter expressions, please refer to ForgeRock Common  REST (CREST) Query Filter documentation.

The JSON matching rule supports indexing which can be enabled using dsconfig against the appropriate attribute index. By default all JSON fields of the attribute are indexed.

In a followup post, I will give more advanced configuration of the JSON Syntax, detail how to customise the matching rule to index only specific JSON fields, and will outline some best practices with the JSON syntax and attributes.